Jessica Tirado

Jessica Tirado (Jagaran Media Center – JMC): Jessica earned her Bachelor’s degree in Sociology and Political Science at the State University of New York at New Paltz. After university, Jessica volunteered in Rwanda with survivors of the 1994 genocide. After returning from Rwanda, she volunteered with the Darfur People’s Association of New York, assisting refugee families. Jessica then worked in northern Thailand with a Thai NGO that worked on human rights in Burma, and was part of the disaster relief response to Cyclone Nargis in May 2008. At the time of her AP fellowship, Jessica was studying for a Masters degree at New York University’s Center for Global Affairs. In the summer of 2007, she participated in NYU’s overseas study program at the United Nations Offices in Geneva. She also served as the Coordinator for Rock to Save Darfur’s major fundraising concert in 2008. After her fellowship, Jessica wrote: “I now view discrimination as a much more urgent problem than I'd previously perceived it to be. I've also gained an enhanced awareness of the importance of marginalized communities in leading their own NGOs and movements, rather than relying on others to advocate on their behalf. This experience has been very humbling.”

The Nepali Bandh: A Nationwide Shutdown

19 Jun

On a normal day, Kathmandu is a bustling, slightly berserk city that appears to be in a constant state of mania. Every stimulus that touches the senses seems to be magnified to the tenth power – the incessant and at times deafening blaring of horns (particularly when the vehicles are about five inches from your ear), the vibrant rainbow of gracefully draped kurta salwar on the equally graceful women, the pungent odor wafting from sun-warmed heaps of trash, the heart-wrenching sight of dirt-covered orphans and beggars contrasted with the historic beauty of majestic Hindu temples and shrines. It brings new meaning to the hopelessly inadequate term “sensory overload”; but somehow, the chaos has a rhythm and the ear-shattering sounds have a quasi-musical quality. Somehow, it works.

…That is, until another almost daily facet of Nepali life rears its head: the all-too-common bandh. (“Bandh” means “closed” in Nepali; it consists of a disruption of daily functioning, usually in the form of a roadblock or an order for businesses to close. Bandhs are sometimes accompanied by protest activity such as marching, burning objects in the street, vandalizing vehicles and property, punishing/attacking those who “violate” the strike, etc.) A bandh is not your typical demonstration; in its most extreme forms, such an event can entail a total shutdown of all local activity. However, the majority of bandhs originate due to rather petty reasons (such as a disagreement between neighbors), are not politically orchestrated, and only last a few hours. Moreover, destruction and violence are not always part of the equation.

Monday’s bandh – the first that I’ve experienced since arriving in Nepal – was atypical in how far-reaching and heated it became (there were five such events throughout the country, and said bandh in Kathmandu City effectively crippled all of the Kathmandu Valley area). The evening before, a violent clash had erupted between the police and the Young Communist League (YCL) over the alleged assassination of a high-profile Maoist leader. The next day, the Maoists got rather miffed and staged an all-day bandh, beginning at 5 a.m. and continuing through the night. All of a sudden, boisterous Kathmandu had morphed into a ghost town; roads were desolate save for individuals wielding the red hammer-and-sickle flag. All shopkeepers and business owners were required to shut down and keep their metal shutters drawn; violators of the strike willingly opened themselves up to brutal punishment as seen fit by the demonstrators.

Some action shots provided by news outlets:

A Maoist supporter is seen holding an iron rod during a clash with Nepalese riot police in Katmandu, Nepal, Sunday, June 14, 2009. (AP Photo/Binod Joshi)

Photo by Associated Press.

A Maoist supporter holding an iron bar shouts slogans during a clash with Nepalese riot police in Katmandu, Nepal, Sunday, June 14, 2009. (AP Photo/Gemunu Amarasinghe)

Photo by Associated Press.

Nepalese women run from tear gas as Maoist supporters clash with Nepalese riot police in Katmandu, Nepal, Sunday, June 14, 2009. (AP Photo/Gemunu Amarasinghe)

Photo by Associated Press.

And some of my own photos attempting to capture the aftermath:

Remnants of burnt property after the riots.

A YCL (Young Communist League) flag lingers in the gutter.

A path of destruction.

It was both eerie and bizarre to see two completely different shades of Kathmandu in such a short time span, and amid all of the discord. Of course, as an outsider, I know the context is far more complex than meets the eye. The Maoists still boast a significant number of loyal supporters, but events such as the case at hand indicate that fear of further bloodshed remains palpable and prevalent. Many Nepalis’ faith in the government is so far gone that they believe meaningful reform, in terms of democracy and representation, is simply not feasible without resorting to extreme measures. A local businessman told me he feels that the system here seems so irreparably corrupted that the only reasonable solution may be total implosion, and starting anew thereafter.

As stated by a well-known Maoist commander two days ago: “We don’t want to go back to war, but we might have to.”

Posted By Jessica Tirado

Posted Jun 19th, 2009


  • iain

    June 29, 2009


    This shows, so clearly, that strikes can be political – something we know from the US and Europe, but do not normally associate with developing countries. Very interesting and important point. I also like the way you start with the strike and broaden out to make this larger point.

  • Ted Samuel

    June 29, 2009


    Wow! Amazing pictures! I remember the Bandhs in Nepal all too well. They are really a remarkable form of protest/social disobedience! I hope that you are enjoying your time and learning a lot. And I look forward to reading more of your blog entries!


    P.S. Please give Prakash, Uru, Remji, and all of the others my regards!

  • Tiffany Ommundsen

    June 30, 2009


    Hi Jessica! Thanks for sharing your perspective on the bandh. It seems like a rather intense situation. I look forward to more of your reporting on the situation. Stay safe!

  • Devin

    July 1, 2009


    hey jessica, great post! i am reminded how the bandha throws a wrench in the best of plans… i once got stuck in the terai because villagers called bandha to protest a girl hit by a bus passing through. In these cases i think it points to the difficulties of securing justice through governance at present… it becomes a way to briefly get your voice heard inside a chorus of shouts … at other times, it seems as if a bandha produces a bandha. one group violates another’s bandha, only resulting in more… it’s a cycle that ends up punishing people trying to carry on their every day lives. at any rate, thanks for keeping us all posted on the latest in ktm and keep up the fantastic blog!

  • Bryan Johnson

    July 5, 2009


    Hi Jessica:

    Well explained post.I am a Law Student in New York(Hofstra)conducting research for two anti-maoist Nepalis who are seeking Political Asylum in the United States. Basically, I am looking for any evidence that would show the Maoists still physically threaten their opponents. I know you have only been there a short time, but if you have seen anything, or see anything in the future, can you please let me know? Thank You very much.


  • Jessica Tirado

    July 8, 2009


    Hi everyone,

    Thanks so much for your comments. It is all too true that the frequency and extent of such bandhs illustrate a pattern of extreme frustration that can sometimes become self-enforcing.

    I’m certainly in awe of the demonstrators’ endurance; many remain outside, marching and shouting, for more than 16 hours at a time. (They certainly put my undergraduate days of traveling to D.C. for marches – in which I’d grow hoarse and exhausted after bellowing anti-war slogans for only a handful of hours – to shame!)

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